Consensus on Reduction of CS Rate: all 104 References ACOG & SMFM 2014

by faithgibson on May 23, 2016

~ Obstetrical Care Consensus Series ~ Joint undertaking by ACOG and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM)

Safe Prevention of the Primary Cesarean Delivery

Number 1, March 2014 (Reaffirmed 2016)

This is a really rich resource for references that relate to reducing CS, increasing NSVD, and a great many unanswered questions such as effects of induction, epidural, abnormal EFM, anmio-infusions, and many others to long to list.

Each reference has a working link for sure to the abstract and sometimes to the full article.



  1. Hamilton BE, Hoyert DL, Martin JA, Strobino DM, Guyer B. Annual summary of vital statistics: 2010-2011. Pediatrics 2013;131:548–58. [PubMed] [Full Text] 
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  3. Guise JM, Eden K, Emeis C, Denman MA, Marshall N, Fu R, et al. Vaginal birth after cesarean: new insights. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No.191. AHRQ Publication No. 10-E003. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2010. Available at: Retrieved November 7, 2013. 
  4. Clark SL, Belfort MA, Dildy GA, Herbst MA, Meyers JA, Hankins GD. Maternal death in the 21st century: causes, prevention, and relationship to cesarean delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2008;199:36.e1-36.e5; discussion 91–2. [PubMed] [Full Text] 
  5. Hannah ME, Hannah WJ, Hodnett ED, Chalmers B, Kung R, Willan A, et al. Outcomes at 3 months after planned cesarean vs planned vaginal delivery for breech presentation at term: the international randomized Term Breech Trial. Term Breech Trial 3-Month Follow-up Collaborative Group. JAMA 2002;287:1822–31. [PubMed] [Full Text] 
  6. Hannah ME, Whyte H, Hannah WJ, Hewson S, Amankwah K, Cheng M, et al. Maternal outcomes at 2 years after planned cesarean section versus planned vaginal birth for breech presentation at term: the international randomized Term Breech Trial. Term Breech Trial Collaborative Group. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004;191:917–27. [PubMed] [Full Text] 
  7. Liu S, Liston RM, Joseph KS, Heaman M, Sauve R, Kramer MS. Maternal mortality and severe morbidity associated with low-risk planned cesarean delivery versus planned vaginal delivery at term. Maternal Health Study Group of the Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System. CMAJ 2007;176:455–60. [PubMed] [Full Text] 
  8. Silver RM, Landon MB, Rouse DJ, Leveno KJ, Spong CY, Thom EA, et al. Maternal morbidity associated with multiple repeat cesarean deliveries. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network. Obstet Gynecol 2006;107:1226–32. [PubMed] [Obstetrics & Gynecology] 
  9. Marshall NE, Fu R, Guise JM. Impact of multiple cesarean deliveries on maternal morbidity: a systematic review. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2011;205:262.e1–262.e8. [PubMed] [Full Text] 
  10. Smith GC, Pell JP, Dobbie R. Caesarean section and risk of unexplained stillbirth in subsequent pregnancy. Lancet 2003;362:1779–84. [PubMed] [Full Text] 
  11. Solheim KN, Esakoff TF, Little SE, Cheng YW, Sparks TN, Caughey AB. The effect of cesarean delivery rates on the future incidence of placenta previa, placenta accreta, and maternal mortality. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2011;24:1341–6. [PubMed] [Full Text] 
  12. Kozhimannil KB, Law MR, Virnig BA. Cesarean delivery rates vary tenfold among US hospitals; reducing variation may address quality and cost issues. Health Aff 2013;32:527–35. [PubMed] [Full Text] 
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  25. Rouse DJ, Landon M, Leveno KJ, Leindecker S, Varner MW, Caritis SN, et al. The Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units cesarean registry: chorioamnionitis at term and its duration-relationship to outcomes. National Institute of Child Health And Human Development, Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004;191:211–6. [PubMed] [Full Text] 
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  27. Rouse DJ, Weiner SJ, Bloom SL, Varner MW, Spong CY, Ramin SM, et al. Second-stage labor duration in nulliparous women: relationship to maternal and perinatal outcomes. Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2009;201:357. e1–357.e7. [PubMed] [Full Text] 
  28. Le Ray C, Audibert F, Goffinet F, Fraser W. When to stop pushing: effects of duration of second-stage expulsion efforts on maternal and neonatal outcomes in nulliparous women with epidural analgesia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2009;201:361.e1–361.e7.[PubMed] [Full Text] 
  29. Cheng YW, Hopkins LM, Caughey AB. How long is too long: Does a prolonged second stage of labor in nulliparous women affect maternal and neonatal outcomes? Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004;191:933–8. [PubMed] [Full Text] 
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  32. Cheng YW, Shaffer BL, Bianco K, Caughey AB. Timing of operative vaginal delivery and associated perinatal outcomes in nulliparous women. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2011;24:692–7. [PubMed] [Full Text] 
  33. Spong CY, Berghella V, Wenstrom KD, Mercer BM, Saade GR. Preventing the first cesarean delivery: summary of a joint Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Workshop. Obstet Gynecol 2012;120:1181–93. [PubMed] [Obstetrics & Gynecology] 
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  36. Werner EF, Janevic TM, Illuzzi J, Funai EF, Savitz DA, Lipkind HS. Mode of delivery in nulliparous women and neonatal intracranial injury. Obstet Gynecol 2011;118:1239–46. [PubMed] [Obstetrics & Gynecology] 
  37. O’Mahony F, Hofmeyr GJ, Menon V. Choice of instruments for assisted vaginal delivery. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 11. Art. No.: CD005455. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005455.pub2. [PubMed] [Full Text] 
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  41. Cheng YW, Hubbard A, Caughey AB, Tager IB. The association between persistent fetal occiput posterior position and perinatal outcomes: an example of propensity score and covariate distance matching. Am J Epidemiol 2010;171:656–63. [PubMed] [Full Text] 
  42. Lieberman E, Davidson K, Lee-Parritz A, Shearer E. Changes in fetal position during labor and their association with epidural analgesia. Obstet Gynecol 2005;105:974–82. [PubMed] [Obstetrics & Gynecology] 
  43. Shaffer BL, Cheng YW, Vargas JE, Caughey AB. Manual rotation to reduce caesarean delivery in persistent occiput posterior or transverse position. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2011;24:65–72. [PubMed] [Full Text] 
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  45. Cargill YM, MacKinnon CJ, Arsenault MY, Bartellas E, Daniels S, Gleason T, et al. Guidelines for operative vaginal birth. Clinical Practice Obstetrics Committee. J Obstet Gynaecol can 2004;26:747–61. [PubMed] 
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  78. Caughey AB, Nicholson JM, Cheng YW, Lyell DJ, Washington AE. Induction of labor and cesarean delivery by gestational age. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2006;195:700–5. [PubMed] [Full Text] 
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  80. Cheng YW, Kaimal AJ, Snowden JM, Nicholson JM, Caughey AB. Induction of labor compared to expectant management in low-risk women and associated perinatal outcomes. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2012;207:502.e1–502.e8. [PubMed] [Full Text] 
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  83. Osmundson S, Ou-Yang RJ, Grobman WA. Elective induction compared with expectant management in nulliparous women with an unfavorable cervix. Obstet Gynecol 2011;117:583–7. [PubMed] [Obstetrics & Gynecology] 
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  88. Hofmeyr GJ, Gülmezoglu AM, Pileggi C. Vaginal misoprostol for cervical ripening and induction of labour. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 10. Art. No.: CD000941. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000941.pub2. [PubMed] [Full Text] 
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  90. Carbone JF, Tuuli MG, Fogertey PJ, Roehl KA, Macones GA. Combination of Foley bulb and vaginal misoprostol compared with vaginal misoprostol alone for cervical ripening and labor induction: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 2013;121:247–52. [PubMed] [Obstetrics & Gynecology] 
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